A fluorophore, in analogy to a chromophore, is a component of a molecule which causes a molecule to be fluorescent. It is a functional group in a molecule which will absorb energy of a specific wavelength and re-emit energy at a different (but equally specific) wavelength. The amount and wavelength of the emitted energy depend on both the fluorophore and the chemical environment of the fluorophore. This technology has particular importance in the field of biochemistry and protein studies, eg. in immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry.
A group of heterocyclic compounds that are based on the 4-(2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxopteridin-6-ylmethylamino)benzoic acid (pteroic acid) and conjugated with one or more L-glutamate units. Folate derivatives are important in DNA synthesis and erythrocyte formation. Folate deficiency leads to anemia.