Azotobacter is a group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria but unlike rhizobia, they do not form root nodules or associate with leguminous crops. They are free-living nitrogen fixers & can be used for all types of upland crops but cannot survive in wetland conditions. In soils of poor fertility and organic matter, azotobacter needs to be regularly applied. In addition to nitrogen-fixation, they also produce beneficial growth substances and beneficial antibiotics that help control root diseases. They are widely used for cereals like maize, millet & sorghum. Azotobacter can fix upto 30 kg of nitrogen from 1000 kg of organic matter and hence save 10-30 kg/ha of N2. The Indian Council for Agriculture Research and Department of Biotechnology have actively encouraged application of rDNA technology for better quality Rhizobium & Azatobacter. In order to help the industry, DBT has established certain repositories to keep microorganisms.